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Type 2 Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Precaution.

- June 15, 2020
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Type 2 Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factor ,Treatment, Precaution.



Overview



Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong disease that keeps your body away from the way insulin is used. People with type 2 diabetes are called insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which cells cannot efficiently use blood sugar (glucose) for energy. It occurs when cells become insensitive to insulin and blood sugar gradually becomes very high.

Type 2 diabetes was known as adult-onset diabetes, but today the disorder is being diagnosed in more children, probably due to increased childhood obesity. There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but losing weight, eating well and exercising can help manage the disease.





Symptoms



  •  Increased thirst
  •  Frequent urination
  •  Increase in appetite
  •  Fatigue
  •  Blurred vision
  •  Slow healing
  •  Recurrent infection
  •  Dark skin areas, usually in the armpits and neck
  •  Lose weight without effort
  •  Feeling dizzy or lightheaded
  •  Difficulty concentrating or making decisions
  •  Sweaty or smelly
  •  Feeling physically weak
  •  Feeling Sleepy
  •  Feeling irritable



Causes of Type 2 diabetes



Your pancreas produces a hormone called insulin. It helps your cells get glucose, a type of sugar that you eat in energy. People with type 2 diabetes make insulin, but their cells do not use it as much as they should.

  Typically, a combination of things leads to type 2 diabetes. They may include:

  •   Insulin resistance: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar which according to NIDKK your body cannot bring on its own. High blood sugar is called hyperglycemia; Hypoglycemia is low blood sugar.

  •   Additional load: Overweight or obesity can cause insulin resistance, especially if you move your extra pounds in your midst.

  •   Metabolic syndrome: People with insulin resistance often have a group of conditions including high blood sugar, excess fat around the waist, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol and triglycerides.

  •   Too much glucose from your liver: When your blood sugar is low, your liver makes glucose and sends it out. When you eat, your blood sugar rises, and your liver will usually slow down and later store its glucose. But some people do not have liver. They keep cranking out the sugar.

  •   Poor communication between cells: Sometimes, cells send the wrong signal or do not pick up the messages correctly.

  •   Broken Beta cells: If the insulin-producing cells send out the wrong amount of insulin at the wrong time, then your blood sugar stops. High blood sugar can also damage these cells.


Risk Factors



  •   Fat distribution: If you primarily store belly fat, you are at a higher risk of type 2 diabetes than if you store fat elsewhere, such as in your hips and thighs. There is an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes if you are a male with a waist circumference above 40 inches (101.6 cm) or a woman with a waist that is more than 35 inches (88.9 cm).

  •   Inactivity: The less active you are, the higher your risk of type 2 diabetes. Physical activity helps control your weight, uses glucose as energy and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin.

  •   Family history: If your parents or siblings have type 2 diabetes then the risk of type 2 diabetes increases.

  •   Race: Although it is unclear whether people of certain ethnicities - including black, Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian-American people - are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than white people.

  •   Being over age 45: The older you are, according to the ADA, you are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. (16) But in recent years, an increasing number of children and adolescents who have already suffered from diabetes and type 2 diabetes have been diagnosed.

  •   Prediabetes: Prediabetes is a condition in which your blood sugar level is higher than normal, but not sufficient to be classified as diabetes. Left untreated, prediabetes often progresses to type 2 diabetes.

  •   Gestational diabetes: If you develop gestational diabetes while pregnant, your risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases. If you have given birth to a child weighing more than 9 pounds (4 kg), you are also at risk of type 2 diabetes.

  •   Polycystic ovarian syndrome: For women, polycystic ovarian syndrome - a common condition characterized by irregular menstruation, excess hair growth and obesity - increases the risk of diabetes.

  •   Obesity: Obesity or being overweight puts you at significant risk for developing type 2 diabetes. According to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), the body mass index (BMI) determines whether you are obese or overweight.




Treatment


These steps will help keep your blood sugar levels normal, which can delay or prevent complications.

Weight loss


Losing weight can reduce your blood sugar level. Losing just 5 to 10 percent of your body weight can make a difference, although consistently losing 7 percent or more of your initial weight seems ideal. This means that someone who weighs 180 pounds (82 kg) will have to lose a little less than 13 pounds (5.9 kg) to make an impact on blood sugar levels.

  •  Controlling fractions and eating healthy foods are simple ways to start losing weight.

Nutritious food


Contrary to popular belief, there is no specific diabetes diet.

  •   Eating low calorie food
  •   Cutting back on refined carbs, especially sweets
  •   Vegetables and Fruits
  •   Getting more fiber

A registered dietitian can help you create a meal plan that suits your health goals, food preferences and lifestyle. She or he can also teach you to monitor your carbohydrate intake and tell you about how many carbohydrates you need to eat with your meals and snacks to keep your blood sugar levels more stable.

Physical activity


All require regular aerobic exercise, and those who have type 2 diabetes are no exception. Enjoy activities like walking, swimming and biking, so that you can make them part of your routine.

Try to do 30 to 60 minutes of physical activity every day. You can walk, bike, swim, or do anything that will make your heart beat faster. Pair that with strength training, such as yoga or weight lifting. If you take a medicine that lowers your blood sugar, you may need a breakfast before a workout. A combination of exercise - aerobic exercise, such as walking or dancing on most days, combined with resistance training, such as weight lifting or yoga twice a week. - Provides more benefits than the type of exercise alone.


Monitoring your blood sugar


Depending on your treatment plan, you may need to check and record your blood sugar levels several times a day if you are on insulin. Ask your doctor how often he would like you to have a blood sugar check. Careful monitoring is the only way to ensure that your blood sugar level remains within your target range.

  • Diabetes Medications And Insulin Therapy


Medicine


If lifestyle changes do not achieve your blood sugar level, you may need medication.

Metformin:  (Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetzae, Fortemet, Rheomat) belongs to a class of drugs called biguanides. Metformin is the first-line therapy for most type 2 diabetes patients. It works by preventing the liver from producing excess glucose, and has a lower risk of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia, or very low blood sugar can cause symptoms such as sweating, palpitations, heart palpitations, weakness, intense hunger, shivering, and problems with speaking. It reduces the amount of glucose that makes up your liver and your body. Helps improve insulin.

Sulfonylurea: This group of medicines helps your body make more insulin. They include glimepiride (amaryl), glipizide (glucotrol, metaglip), and glyburide (diabeta, micronus).


DPP-4 inhibitor: These drugs - linagliptin (Tredgenta), saxagliptin (Ongliza), and sitagliptin (Januvia) - help lower your blood sugar level, but can cause joint pain and inflame your pancreas.
   

GLP-1 receptor agonist: You take these medicines with a needle to slow down digestion and blood sugar levels. Some of the most common ones are exanatide (Baita, Byrdan), liraglutide (Victoza), and semaglutide (ozampic).



Yoga helps control blood sugar levels.



Experience and studies have shown that specific lifestyle changes can contribute significantly to the control and management of diabetes.

When practiced consistently, yoga can help improve your blood sugar control, which is very important for anyone diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. This is important because when dealing with diabetes the major problem is how to stabilize blood sugar levels in the body, which is often the cause of the disease in the first place.

Yoga is generally good for your health, especially in the area of ​​stress management which is also necessary to control type 2 diabetes.

Studies show that increasing stress levels can increase blood sugar levels, which can lead to more serious complications such as stroke and heart attack. So the idea is to have everything removed which could potentially prevent you from getting enough rest and sleeping.

You can combine your yoga with meditation for even better results. Yoga classes are available through schools, senior citizen centers, sports clubs and the YMCA. Discuss yoga or any other exercise program with your doctor before starting classes.



Precaution


Avoid five foods when you have diabetes



1. Frozen Dinner: Frozen dinners are notorious for having tons of sodium added, not to mention additives. It is best to skip these and make your food as low as possible. If you are short on time, try a salad with lots of vegetables and a drizzle of olive oil and balsamic vinegar.

2. Soda and juice: Diet soda contains artificial sweeteners that are as harmful as refined sugar. Discard soda and fruit juices, and opt for plain sparkling water while sprinkling fresh lemon or lemon juice.

3. Granola Bars: While often thought of as a healthy breakfast option, granola bars can have as much sugar added as candy bars! If granola bars are your go-to snack, be sure to read the nutrition label, and omit anything that lists sugar as one of the first ingredients. Try to stick to a granola bar that is naturally sweetened with ingredients like dried fruit, raw honey, or pure maple syrup.

4. Taste of yogurt: While a convenient snack or snack choice, flavored yogurt is heavy on sugar. The good news is that you can still enjoy yogurt; Opt for full-fat Greek yogurt and sweeten it with fresh fruit and a drizzle of honey.

5. Protein Shakes: While not all protein shakes are unhealthy, many protein powders contain added sugar and artificial ingredients. The added unhealthy ingredients can harden on the digestive system, trigger inflammation, and also cause blood sugar imbalances. If you prefer to enjoy a protein shake as a convenient snack, try to stick to a protein powder free of excess ingredients: protein powders such as collagen protein, or hemp protein.



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