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Headache and Migraine: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment.

- June 30, 2020
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Headache and Migraine: Difference, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment.

 

Headache and Migraine: What's the Difference?



What is Migraine ?



Migraine is a powerful headache often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light. Migraines can last from 4 hours to 3 days, and are sometimes prolonged.


Common symptoms include:

  •   Eye pain
  •   Sensitivity to light or sound
  •   Nausea
  •   Vomiting
  •   Severe pain, often only on one side of the head, is described by some as "pounding" or beating.



What is Headache ?


Headache can be more complicated than most people realize. Different types can have their own set of symptoms, may be for unique reasons, and require different treatments.

Once you know what kind of headache you have, you and your doctor can treat and are most likely to avoid it.





Types



Common Types of Headaches



Tension headache


Tension headache is the most common type of headache in adults and adolescents. They cause mild to moderate pain and come with time. They usually have no other symptoms.


Migraine headache


Migraine headaches are often described as severe, throbbing pain. They can last 4 hours to 3 days and usually occur one to four times a month. Along with pain, people also have other symptoms, such as sensitivity to light, noise, or smell; Vomiting or nausea; loss of appetite; And stomach ache or stomachache.


Cluster headaches


These headaches are the most severe. You may have intense burning or piercing pain behind or around one eye. It may be pulsating or stagnant. The pain can be so bad that most people with cluster headaches cannot sit still and will often pace during an attack.


Chronic daily headache


This type of headache lasts for 15 days or a month for more than 3 months. Some are less. Others last more than 4 hours. It is usually one of four types of primary headaches:

  •     Chronic migraine
  •     Chronic tension headache
  •     New daily frequent headaches
  •     Hemicrania contua

Sinus headache


With a sinus headache, you feel a deep and persistent pain on your cheekbones, forehead or bridge of your nose. They occur when the cavities in your head, called sinuses, become inflamed. The pain usually comes with other sinus symptoms, such as a runny nose, fullness in ears, fever and a swollen face. A true sinus headache results in a sinus infection, so the smell coming out of your nose will be yellow or green, unlike the obvious discharge in a cluster or migraine headache.


New Daily Permanent Headache (NDPH)


These may start suddenly and last for 3 months or longer. Many remember vividly the day his pain began.

Doctors are not sure why this type of headache starts. Some people find that it attacks after an infection, flu-like illness, surgery, or a stressful event.



Spinal pain


Talk to your doctor if you have a headache after having a spinal tap, spinal block, or epidural. Your doctor may call it a puncture headache because these procedures involve piercing the membrane that surrounds your spine. If spinal fluid leaks through the puncture site, it can cause headaches.
Picks up


Thunderclap headache


People often call it the worst headache of your life. It suddenly comes out of nowhere and speaks quickly. Causes of thunder headaches include:

  •     Blood vessel tearing, rupture, or blockage
  •     Head injury
  •     Hemorrhagic stroke from a broken blood vessel in your brain
  •     Ischemic stroke from a blocked blood vessel in your brain
  •     Blood vessels around the brain
  •     Blood vessel infections
  •     Blood pressure changes in late pregnancy





Types of Migraine Headaches



Symptoms for two types of migraine headaches refer to symptoms that indicate when one is about to begin, called aura.

  •     Migraine with aura
  •     Migraine without aura

The aura can begin 1 hour before a pain and usually lasts 15 minutes to 1 hour. Views include:

  •    Bright flashing dot or light
  •    Blind spots
  •    Blurry vision
  •    Temporary vision loss
  •    Wavy or jagged lines





Symptoms



What are the Signs and Symptoms of Migraine Headache?




The most common symptoms of migraine are:

  •   Sensitivity to light, noise and smell
  •   Nausea and vomiting, stomach upset and abdominal pain
  •   Sound sensitivity
  •   Eye pain
  •   Loss of appetite
  •   Feeling too hot or cold
  •   Pale skin
  •   Fatigue
  •   Dizziness
  •   Blurred vision
  •   Diarrhea
  •   Fever (this is rare)




Causes


Causes of Migraine


Migraine headache is a symptom of a condition known as migraine. Physicians do not know the exact cause of migraine headaches, although they appear to be related to changes in your brain and your genes. Your parents may also undergo migraine triggers such as fatigue, strong light, or weather changes.

For many years, scientists thought migraines were caused by changes in the blood flow to the brain. Now most think they were due to changes in your brain that have passed from your parents.


  •     Gender and hormonal changes: Women are three times more likely to suffer from migraines than men. Brockman states that changes in the menstrual cycle and hormones are a factor of migraine in women.

  •     Allergies: Also called allergic rhinitis, allergies cause irritation and inflammation in the body. Because migraine is associated with inflammation of blood vessels, allergy is a known trigger for some people.

  •     Family history and genetics: People with family members suffering from migraine are more likely to develop migraine on their own. Scientists have discovered a genetic mutation that is common with those most common types of migraines.

  •     Environment: This category includes a wide range of triggers, such as weather changes, stress, food, smells, and lack of sleep.





Treatment for Migraines and Headaches



Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS).


You place this device at the beginning of a migraine with aura on the back side of your head. It sends a pulse of magnetic energy to part of your brain, which can stop or reduce pain.


Nausea Medicine.


If you have nausea with your migraine, your doctor may prescribe medicine.


Triptans.


These drugs balance the chemicals in your brain. You may get a pill to swallow, pills you slurp on your tongue, a nasal spray or a pill. Examples include almotriptan (exert), eletripan (relax), sumatriptan (imitrex), rizatriptan (mexalt), and zolmitriptan (zomig).


Ergotamine.


It also works on chemicals in your brain.


Lesmiditan (Revov).


This medicine reduces pain, nausea and sensitivity to light or sound.


CGRP receptor antagonists.


If other treatments do not help, your doctor may give you rimegepant (Nurtec) or ubrogepant (Ubrelvy).


Pain relief : 


Over-the-counter (OTC) medications often work well. The main ingredients are acetaminophen, aspirin, caffeine, and ibuprofen. Never give aspirin to a person under 19 because of the risk of Rea's syndrome. Be careful when you take OTC pain meds, as they can also add to headaches. If you use them too much, you can get rebound headaches or depend on them. If you are relieved of any OTC pain more than 2 days a week, talk to your doctor about medications that may work better.


Preventive medicines


If other treatments do not work and you have four or more migraine days a month, your doctor may suggest these. You consume them regularly to make your headache less severe or persistent. They include seizure medications, blood pressure medications (such as beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers), some antidepressants, and shots of botulinum toxin type A (botox).

   

Prescription drugs


If you experience moderate to severe migraines on a regular basis, then OTC treatment may not be enough to manage your symptoms. Prescription medicine can help reduce the severity of your migraine and prevent future events. Medication may include:

  •    Blood pressure medications, such as beta blockers
  •    Antidepressant
  •    Anti-seizure medicines
  •    Botulinum toxin A (Botox) injection


Lifestyle changes



Adopting lifestyle changes can help prevent some types of headaches and migraines. Contains:

  •    Exercising regularly
  •    Making dietary changes to avoid trigger foods
  •    Improve sleeping habits
  •    Practicing relaxation techniques like yoga and meditation

"Keeping a migraine or headache journal can also help you track patterns and identify triggers," Brockman says. Note that the day and time of your headache and migraine has started, your surroundings and activity has started before the symptoms, and how long the pain lasts.
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